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Code Of Ethics

General Code of Ethics and Code of ethics for Eye Bank

Extracts From

The Code and Rules of Ethics Laid Down By Medical Council of India (1970)

“Solicitation of patients, directly or indirectly, by a Registered Medical Practitioners or by institutions or organizations is unethical. A Registered Medical Practitioner shall not Make use of himself (or his name) as a subject in any form or manner of advertising or do publicity through lay channels, so as to invite attention to him or to his professional position, skill, qualification, achievements, attainments, specialties, appointments, associations, affiliations or honors, nor shall he boast of cases, operations, cures or remedies or permit the publication or report thereof through lay channels”.

It is improper to use an unusually large signboard and write on it anything other than his name, qualifications obtained from a University or a statutory body, titles and the name of his specialty. The same should be the contents of his prescription papers.

Extracts From

Medical Council Of India (Code of Conduct) Regulation -2002

Chapter– 6

UNETHICAL ACTS: A physician shall not aid or abet or commit any of the following acts which shall be constructed as unethical –
6.1 Advertising: Soliciting of patients directly or indirectly, by a physician, by a group of physicians or by institution or organizations is unethical.
6.1.2 Printing of self photograph, or any such material of publicity in the letter head or on sign board of the consulting room or any such clinical establishment shall be regarded as acts of, self advertisement and unethical conduct on the part of the physician. However, printing of sketched, diagrams, picture of system shall not be treated as unethical.

Chapter– 7

7. MISCONDUCT: The following acts of commission or omission on the part of a physician shall constitute professional misconduct rendering him / her liable for disciplinary action.
7.11 A physician should not contribute to the lay press articles and given interviews regarding diseases and treatments which may have the effect of advertising himself or soliciting practices; but is open to write to the lay press under his own name on maters of public health.
7.12 An institution runs by a physician for a particular purpose. May be advertised in the lay press, but such advertisements should not contain anything more than the name of the institution, type of patients admitted, type of training and other facilities offered and the fees.

Extracts From


  1. An ophthalmologist shall not misrepresent credentials, training, experience, ability or results.
  2. Communications to the Public must be accurate. They must not convey false, untrue, deceptive or misleading information through statements, testimonials, photographs, graphics or by other means, particularly without which the communication would be deceptive. Communications must not misrepresent an ophthalmologist’s credentials, training, experience or ability, and must not contain claims of superiority.
  3. An ophthalmologist’s clinical judgment and practice must not be affected by economic interest in commitment to, or benefit from professionally related commercial enterprise.
  4. The member should perform only those procedures in which he is competent by virtue of his specific training or experience or is assisted by one who is.
  5. Performance of unnecessary (not required) surgery is an extremely serious ethical violation.
  6. Use of clinical experiments or investigative procedures shall be approved by adequate review mechanisms. Clinical experiments and investigative procedures are those conducted to develop adequate information on which to base prognostic or therapeutic decisions or to determine actiology or pathogenesis, in circumstances in which insufficient information exists. Appropriate informed consent in writing for these procedures must recognize their special nature and ramifications.
  7. Fees for Ophthalmological Services must not exploit patient or others who pay for the services and must always be in tune with the economic status of the patient, their employers and others.

Extracts From


Academic Privacy : In case of Academic Piracy membership may be suspended for 3years in the first instance and in case of second such offence; the membership will be suspended for 10 years.

Observance Of Code Of Ethics : The Members of the Managing Committee should ensure that code of ethics is observed in letter and spirit in their own Regions and they may take all preventive measures in this regard. Any serious laps on the part on any Member of the AIOS as noticed should be immediately brought to the notice of the Hon. General Secretary, AIOS and the Chairman, Ethics Committee.

Extracts From

(31st December 1993)
Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi – 110 029
Organized by:
Ophthalmology Section
Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
Government of India, New Delhi – 110 011

1. Code of Ethics for Eye Banks :

1.1  Eye Bank will not enter in rivalry or competition with other Eye Banks.

1.2  There should be free exchange of tissue (Eyes) between Eye Banks.

1.3  No eye (Healthy normal) is to be enucleated during life.

1.4  Eye tissue shall neither be bought nor sold.

1.5  Eye tissue shall be distributed without discrimination based on race, creed, colour or nationality.

1.6  The identity of the donor is not to be disclosed to the recipient.

1.7  The identity of the recipient is not disclosed to Donor’s kin. However, the donor’s relatives may be informed of the use of the eyes.

1.8  The Donor’s identity is not told to the surgeon. However, the medical history / cause of death of the donor is to be revealed to the surgeon.

1.9  Eye Banks shall maintain proper records of receipt and distribution of eyes.

1.10  They shall be not use the corneal tissue for corneal grafting which is contra-indicated for such use (Appendix II) as modified from time to time.

1.11  The eye tissue shall be distributed only to qualified Ophthalmologists.

1.12  There shall not do publicity for commercial gain. However, publicity for the furtherance of eye donation might be undertakes.

2. Code for Eye Surgeons :

2.1  Eye shall not be bought and no charge shall occur to the recipient.

2.2  They should be competent to perform corneal surgery.

2.3  They should get the cornea from recognized eye banks.

2.4  They should possess all relevant medical details of donor as well as details about cornea, except identity of donor.

3. Code for Eye Collection Centers :

3.1  They shall not compete with other Collection Centers.

3.2  They shall get full details of medical history and send to Eye Bank with the ‘Eye Ball’.

3.3  Eye must be collected once donated irrespective of inconvenience or unsuitability (at first sight).

3.4  Proper legal consent as applicable should be taken from next to kin.

4. Code for Collection Centre – Personnel :

4.1  They have to be respectful to the body of the deceased (cadaver).

4.2  The enucleation is done in a secluded place.

4.3  External multilation of the body must be avoided.

4.4  A medical practitioner trained in enucleation of cadaver eye or ophthalmologist should remove the eye.

4.5  The enucleation should, be done aseptically and all steps be taken properly to stop blood oozing.

4.6  Artificial eye may be fitted and the relatives must be told of it.

4.7  They will be polite, courteous and sympathetic with donor’s relatives / kin.

5. Code for Disposal of Eyes :

After the use of cornea or where the cornea is not useable the eye shall be disposed in any of the following ways:

5.1  Study of Histopathology of eye or its various parts.

5.2  Use the individual tissues in Eye Research.

5.3  Preservation of tissues like sclera and cornea.

5.4  Shall be disposed off according to wishes of the deceased or his relatives if known.

6. Ethics for Voluntary Organizations involved in Eye Bank Work :

6.1  There will not be rivalry between other voluntary organizations involved in Eye Bank Work.

6.2  They shall not be demand any money from Eye Banks for Supply of eyes.

6.3  They will take up publicity campaign for donation.

6.4  Eye pledges be solicited in dignified manner.

6.5  All public information be medically approved.


1.  Eye Bank shall not compete with one another.

2.  Eye should be collected once donated.

3.  Eye tissue shall neither be bought nor sold.

4.  Eye tissue should be distributed without any discrimination based on race, religion, creed or nationality.

5.  Eye tissue shall be provided only to qualified Ophthalmologist.

6.  The name of donor and recipient shall not be disclosed to each other’s kinship.

7.  Eye pledges shall be solicited in a dignified manner.

8.  Fund raising shall be ethically conducted.

9. All public information shall be medically approved.